History of the January-December 365-Day "Gregorian" Sun Calendar
For thousands of years people have been using the Roman Catholic legal system "court calendar" with the 12 named months January-December.
The world's12-month "business legal system calendar" was created in the year 46 BC as a new calendar for the court system of the Roman Empire.
It was originally named the "Julian Calendar" in honor of the Roman Emperor , Julius Caesar.
The 12-month Julian Calendar is a seasonal "sun calendar" used to record the 365.25 days it takes our planet to orbit once around our Sun.
But more importantly it is a legal record-keeping system for documenting all business transactions on Earth for the Roan Catholic Church.
The rising and setting of the Sun on the horizon, especially if sighted correctly with stone markers, can identify the exact day of the spring equinox and with it the return of the growing seasons, which is important to know especially when one is farming.
The Julian Calendar was ordered into use by decree of Julius Caesar, in the year 709 of Rome, in 46 BC, as the official business and court-calendar for his colossal worldwide Roman Empire.
This new 12-month "Leap Yea" calendar system (with an extra-day added every four-years) was brought to the attention of the Roman courts by a Greek-slave named Sosigenes.
Sosigenes had observed that every fourth-year the rising and setting of the Sun at the winter solstice would arrive a day earlier than expected, as seen and marked-on the horizon from previous winter solstices. He realized that the known calculated length of each Earth-‘year’ orbit of 365-days was slightly wrong. He figured out through observations that the Earth orbit was slightly more than 365-days, about a quarter-day longer, about 8 hours; 365-days plus one-quarter day.
So Sosigenes created a simple adjustment formula that added an "extra-day" every four-years. And he also divided the year into 12-months and accounted for the shorter winter season and the longer summer months by assigning 2-less days for February and 1-more day for August.
The Greek calendar maker presented his theory to the Roman courts. He must have discussed creating a new calendar, a 12-month calendar with his facts about the Earths’ yearly 365-day cycle needing to be adjusted an extra day every four-years, along with the number of days in each month needing to be adjusted, alternating between 30 and 31 days.
Julius Caesar knew that the older Roman calendar system was not very accurate, in use before 46 BC it did not even track the entire winter months, so a new calendar would be a big improvement.
With a new calendar system it would allow the Roman court officials to forecast and accurately predict the growing seasons and more importantly: to control "time". Special holy days, or holidays, could be planned and designated months in advance with exact accuracy.
This new calendar re-formatted the day-to-day life of Roman citizens and their slaves within the Roman Empire. It reset the marketplace days and, most importantly, the official court days, and the holy days or holidays.
The Julian Calendar created "the idea" of the 7-day week and the 5-day court-business week, the Roman pagan holy day each week on Sun-Day, i.e., Sunday.
Caesar gave names to the 12 months and the 7 days of the week after various Roman pagan gods, goddesses, a festival, planets, one of his relatives, and an important Roman family-clan.
PAGAN NAMES of the 7 DAYS: The JULIAN & GREGORIAN Calendars:
(Latin name planet =
Old English = English)
Dies Solis sun =
Sun’s Day which became Sunday
Dies Lunae moon =
Moon’s Day which became Monday
Dies Martis mars =
Tiw’s Day which became Tuesday
Dies Mercurii mercury =
Woden’s Day which became Wednesday
Dies Jovis jupiter =
Thor’s Day which became Thursday
Dies Veneris venus =
Frigg’s Day which became Friday
Dies Saturni saturn =
Seterne’s Day which became Saturday
PAGAN NAMES of the MONTH
The JULIAN & GREGORIAN Calendars:
- the two-faced god of doorways, beginnings, and endings.
- festival of purification.
- planet and the god of war.
- the goddess of planet Venus.
- one of the "Seven Sisters" Pleiadian goddess.
- the god of Jupiter, and the name of a Roman clan.
Julius. Julius Caesar
- the Roman general and statesman.
Augustus. Caesar Augustus
- the first Roman emperor, nephew of Julius.
September. Septem ("seven" in Latin)
- seventh Roman month.
October. Octo ("eight" in Latin)
- eighth Roman month.
November. Nove ("nine" in Latin)
- ninth Roman month.
December. Decem ("ten" in Latin)
- tenth Roman month.
But the Greek-inspired Roman Empire "Julian Calendar" system was still not quite exactly accurate.
One-YEAR Earth orbit cycle = 365-days, 8-hours, 11-minutes and 14-seconds
In the year 730 AD the Anglo-Saxon monk St. Bede the Venerable told the Church of: his discovery that the Earth-year is actually 11-minutes and 14-seconds longer than previously thought; and that the Julian Calendar was many days off-count by the accumulation of 11+minutes each year. But no one in the Church acted on his information then.
By the 13th-century, monk Roger Bacon convinced the interested Roman Catholic Pope Clement VI of wha the Anglo-Saxon monk St. Bede the Venerable told the Church in 730 AD, but the Pope soon died and nothing was done to correct the accumulated extra days error.
Those 11-minutes-and-14-seconds each-year continued to accumulate so that after another 300+years, by the mid-1500’s, the Julian calendar Spring Equinox date was 10 days off. It would be like a date being written as March 11 when it was really March 21.
The adjusted calendar of Pope Gregory the 13th: the "Gregorian Calendar"
In the mid-1520’s the King of Spain was sponsoring armies of European men to explore-and-subjugate the newly "discovered" Amorican continent and people, and they returned with looted artifacts from the Aztec and Mayan cities; and some pirated items were taken to Rome, usually by way of missionary journeys.
Sometime before the year 1572 AD a Jesuit astronomer named “Clavius” took-on the "time problem" that the Julian Calendar was experiencing.
Clavius attended the Roman Catholic Church courts of Pope Gregory the 13th in 1572, where he pleaded with the court to stop-and-correct the Church calendar once and for all.
Clavius must have detailed why the Julian Calendar was now "off" by 10 days.
Clavius explained a simple "three-part solution": (1) If the leap year is omitted at the end of every 100-years; AND, (2) if every 400-years the leap year day is left in, then the Church calendar could keep an accurate count over the next 20,000-years; AND, (3) the present Church calendar must now be adjusted 10 days FORWARD.
“In the year of Our Lord 1582,” ten-years later, Pope Gregory-the-13th issued a decree officially resetting the Roman Catholic Church calendar forward by 10 days, so that after October 4 came October 15.
This realigned the Church calendar so that the Spring Equinox would appear again on the correct calendar day: March 21 or 22.
This 10-day adjustment was very important to the Church for the marking of certain religious ceremonial dates; notably Easter, which depends upon the calculation of: the first Sunday after the first full moon after the spring-equinox.
And thus began the "new" Gregorian Calendar, as the adjusted Julian Calendar was then re-named after...Pope Gregory, of course.
Various countries around the world began using this new version of the Roman Catholic calendar over the next 100-years. There was resistance to the moving of the dates forward 10 days by those using the Julian Calendar, for all different types of personal and legal-business reasons.
230-years later, the growing English colonies in America "officially" changed-over to the Gregorian Calendar in September 1752.
The calendar by-then had to be adjusted forward by 11 days: Wednesday, September 2, was followed by Thursday, September 14.
One useful feature of the Julian Calendar still used today is that every date is consecutively numbered, so that the total number of days between two dates can be exactly counted over many years.
Example: December 21, 2012 is Julian day # 2456282.
The 260-day "Mayan (Venus) Calendar"
Tracking Time with the "Twin Star" Venus
The 260-day Mayan Calendar, the “Tzolkin” in Maya language (pronounced: ZOL-kin), is the original 'Calendar of The Americas' exactly calibrated to the orbits of the planets Venus and Mars, and to the solar-lunar eclipse cycles of the Sun and Moon.
By the time of the new Gregorian Calendar in the year 1582 AD, the 260-day Mayan Calendar had already been in use for thousands of years throughout the "New" world" of North, South and Central America.
The 260-day Mayan Calendar is actually a "Venus calendar" was introduced to Rome sometime after the Spanish explorer Hernando Cortes arrived in Central America in 1519 AD.
Even before the establishment of Rome as a town in the 8th century BC, and 2,000 years before the arrival of the Europeans, the 260-day calendar had already been fully developed and in use.
The 260-day Olmec-Mayan and Aztec calendars were being used throughout Central America and by the Hopi nation in the southwestern United States by at least the 1200's AD.
In 1995, I realized after reading Dennis Tedlock's book, The Popul Vuh, that the Yucatan lowlands Maya "count of days" that the-late DR. JOSÉ ARGÙELLES and most people then were using, was miscalculated by 55 days, as of 1995.
Tedlock recorded that the Guatemala highlands Maya are the oldest Mayan communities who have kept another "count of days" based exactly on the risings and settings of the planet Venus and their Venu calendar is known as the "Guatemala highlands" Maya count of days.
All Mayan dates on this website are from the exact accurate Guatemala highlands Mayan Calendar count of days.
The big difference is DR. ARGÙELLES used the "Yucatan lowlands" Mayan calendar count of days; but I realized, and all scholars agree that the calendar of the Yucatan lowland Maya is miscounted by 57 days, as of 2020. The Yucatan-lowlands Mayan calendar miscount began hundreds of years ago and is no longer aligned with the rising and setting cycles of the planet Venus.
This split between the Highland Maya calendar day count and Lowland Maya calendar day count can be traced back into the 1500's with the arrival of the "divide & conquer " Spanish army in 1519.
Time to switch-over to using the Guatemala-highlands Mayan calendar, so get used to it. It was a challenge to "make the switch" at first, but I did so in 1997.
There is also evidence that the Indonesian island people of Bali share similar customs of the Maya and Aztec cultures.
The "Olmec Mayan" 260-day calendars predates the Aztec version by thousands of years. All the same calendars, but with different names for the 20 daysigns.
The Olmec Mayan (and Aztec) calendar is a 260-day calendar that weaves together two basic cycles of time.
The larger of the two time cycles is the 20-Day MONTH, with 20 unique daysigns assigned to each of the 20 days of the Mayan "month."
The Mayan Calendar NUMBERS 1 through 13 are drawn using a DOT and BAR notation system:
1 = one DOT
2 = two DOTS
3 = three DOTS
4 = four DOTS
5 = one BAR
6 = one DOT above one BAR
7 = two DOTS above one BAR, and so on
10 = two BARS
11 = one DOT above two BARS
12 = two DOTS above two BARS, and so on
15 = three BARS
16 = one DOT above three BARS
16 = two DOTS above three BARS, and so on
20 = CLAM SHELL symbol.
The 13 Mayan numbers may also be associated with the musical scale "octave."
The 13-day week can be thought of as an "Octave of Time," with each day associated with a musical note.
The Musical Code to Time:
The "modern" musical scale frequencies at pitch 440 are deliberately set to create disharmony.
The most beneficial "original" pitch 432 is now available, with many apps for mobile phones and laptops.
Within each 260-day calendar cycle are 20 weeks of 13 days each.
20 x 13-days = 260-days
Each of the twenty 13-day Mayan "weeks" signifies a unique spiritual journey of 13 days.
These two cycles in combination create the 260-day sacred Mayan calendar.
*Note: All Mayan Calendar dates on this website are from the exact proven accurate calendar of the Guatemala-highlands Maya 'count of days' used today by the oldest Mayan communities. The other calendar 'count of days' known as the Yucatan-lowlands Mayan calendar count, used by the-late DR. JOSÉ ARGÙELLES, is miscounted by 57 days as of 2020. The Yucatan-lowlands count of days miscount began hundreds of years ago and is no longer aligned with the rising and setting cycles of the planet Venus, which is what the Mayan Calendar is suoosed to be based upon. This split can be traced back into the 1500's with the arrival of the "divide & conquer" Spanish army in 1519. Time to switch-over to using the proven exactly accurate Guatemala-highlands Mayan Calendar, so get used to it.
1922 began a 104-year Venus cycle of thirteen (13) 8-year cycles that completes in 2026.
In 1922 Venus rose on its first day as "The Morning Star" on Mayan calendar Day #20, the first appearance of the SUN ahau day-sign on the 260-day calendar cycle. This only happens once every 104-years!
Have now included that in the YEARS 1901-2025 section, noted as: 1922 - V1... 1930 - V2... 1938 - V3... 1946 - V4... 1954 - V5... 1962 - V6... 1970 - V7... 1978 - V8... 1986 - V9... 1994 - V10... 2002 - V11... 2010 - V12... 2018 V13.
The current 8-year Venus cycle we are in, 2018-2026, has five (5) transit points.
Just like the Mayan Calendar is sectioned into five (5) 52-day cycles, so too this Venus 8-year cycle has the same fractal nature.
The beginning point was October 24, 2018, and the second Earth-Venus-Sun alignment point was June 3, 2020.
This beginning phase 2018-2020 was like wandering around in the Wilderness. We know we're going somewhere important but we're just going thru the wilderness trying to find our way out.
June 3, 2020, marked "the end" of the "Wilderness" phase in the 8-year Venus cycle and unexpected shifts of consciousness and world events begin to put everything into focus as to what needs to "change" to keep our planet on the positive path to higher integrity it has been on since the HARMONIC CONVERGENCE world-wide 2-days of prayer in August 1987. Those 2-day worldwide days of prayers for peace celebrated and marked the end of nine 52-year "Hell Cycles" that began in 1519 with the arrival of Cortes into the "New World," along with the Spanish Inquisition.
For finally we arrive at our "destination," the "Zero Point" time shift zone at the end of 2025 in Mayan year 13 that completes in January 2026 when a new 13-year cycle begins, and a new 260-day cycle begins on January 23, 2026.
Fear not. We are safe. Be patient.
A five-pointed star pattern is exactly the same kind of pattern design detected within the double-helix spiral blueprints of genetic DNA, in the cells of all living creatures on Earth.
The organs of the body are spaced a certain distance from the brain, and in the same way the "organs" of our solar system, the Planets, are spaced a certain distance from the Sun. Let the "organs" play their tunes!
The key to the accuracy of the Maya calendar is that its based upon the exact rising and setting dates of the planet Venus, as was recorded within the ancient Mayan painted-paper sacred books; for Venus orbit creates a five-pointed star pattern orbit around our Sun.
Mayan astronomers recorded the exact Mayan dates Venus appears and disappears in the sky over 8-year cycles of time. Many pages of calculations for Venus are matched with the Mayan day-sign Ajaw or SUN as documented in the Mayan records.
Ajaw or Ahau? Different spellings, same pronounciation.
The Mayan day-sign representing the planet Venus are drawn next to the Mayan calendar day-s Ajaw SUN.
So, Mayan calendar accuracy Rule #1 is:
Every 8-years the first sighting of Venus rising in the eastern dawn sky occurs on Mayan day SUN ajaw.
The first sighting of Venus rising on the specific Mayan calendar-day SUN Ajaw every 8 years determines the correct Maya calendar day of adjustment, if necessary, to keep the Mayan Calendar "accurate."
Like both the Gregorian and Julian calendars the Mayan calendar must also be adjusted, a day - but backwards - sometimes one day must be subtracted, about every ten years or so, if necessary. This is the "secret" key the Guatemala-highland Maya kept.
Because of the orbit length of the Venus year, 224.7-days, those "partially missing" days every year of 0.3-days begin to add up.
The Venus-Sun "inferior conjunction" alignments occur 3-days earlier every 10-years. So even with the 2 extra leap year- always added in every 8-years an additional day must be subtracted to keep the Mayan Calendar aligned to the rising of Venus on SUN ajaw days.
Year Venus Days
This then raises challenging questions, such as: How can we subtract one extra day? Where does that Mayan day go? And, WHEN does the adjustment take place, if needed?
We must realize that the 260-day calendar is really tracking an invisible subtle "energy field" that the planets are always moving thru. And since the planets do not have exact circular orbital patterns, the orbits are oval or egg-shaped, their orbital revolutions we observe mathematically have variations that do not overtly appear at first as simple Earth-time calculation formulas and so we have to adjust our Sun-based calendars to compensate.
The total Mayan calendar "energy field" is actually slightly less-than 260 days in duration.
So little-by-little every day, every month and every year the Mayan calendar slowly slips backwards, so that, for example, the Mayan "New Year Day" happens now in mid-January rather than in March as it did in the 1500’s.
Jose Arguelles talked about it but I have never seen anyone adjusting his calendar dates ever. And I have not seen online ONE date calculator that gets the Mayan dates correct going back before 1995.
I believe my date charts from 1901-2026 are proven to be accurate. I can't rely on "magical thinking" because these are "facts" of astronomy cycles of Venus.
It is true that the "error" or adjustment works out to be about 5 days every 52 years but, again, have never seen anywhere anyone adjusting.
My facts are correct and I just proved it.
Here is the ideal 8-Year pattern as recorded in the Mayan "Madrid Codex":
Mayan Symbol Venus - Rises or Sets (Star Pattern Cycles: 1 – 5)
SUN *Rises as Morning Star (1)
WARRIOR Sets as Morning Star
WORLDBRIDGER Rises as Evening Star
WARRIOR Sets as Evening Star
SEED *Rises as Morning Star (2)
SUN Sets as Morning Star
DOG Rises as Evening Star
SUN Sets as Evening Star
STAR *Rises as Morning Star (3)
SEED Sets as Morning Star
WIZARD Rises as Evening Star
SEED Sets as Evening Star
HUMAN *Rises as Morning Star (4)
STAR Sets as Morning Star
MIRROR Rises as Evening Star
STAR Sets as Evening Star
WARRIOR *Rises as Morning Star (5)
Sets as Morning Star HUMAN
WIND Rises as Evening Star
HUMAN Sets as Evening Star
*Note: All Mayan Calendar dates on this website are from the exact proven accurate calendar of the Guatemala highlands Maya "count of days" used today by the oldest Mayan communities. The other calendar count of days known as the Yucatan lowlands Mayan Calendar count, used by the-late DR. JOSÉ ARGÙELLES,is miscounted by 57 days as of 2020. The Yucatan lowlands count of days miscount began hundreds of years ago and is no longer aligned with the rising and setting cycles of the planet Venus, which is what the Mayan Calendar is suoosed to be based upon. This split can be traced back into the 1500's with the arrival of the "divide & conquer" Spanish Armada in 1519. Time to switch-over to using the proven exactly accurate Guatemala-highlands Mayan Calendar, so get used to it.